الأوراق العلمية

AuthorsTitle Num
Vol. 4, Issue 1

Vol. 4 Issue 1

Ali Shaki

Wadi – AL- Hayat area is considered as one of important agriculture areas in south west of Libya, which famous of planting vegetable and fruits, which considered as local market supplier in those productions. Despite of depending on irrigation 100/% on irrigate those crops on the groundwater; however; the irrigation practices was not good.The basic infiltration rate is considered one of the physical properties that effects the irrigation operations important factor where depend on flow rate in sprinkler irrigation and length of frowwr in surface irrigation. If the infiltration rat dose not calculated accurately; that will resulted in runoff or deep percolation. In this paper, double rings methods used to measure the infiltration rate; the date collection was analysis using Kostiakov equations. The result showed that, there was deference between the two sits; with the same irrigations practices in the region

Mohamed A. Altaher & Mohamed M. Zandi

Coal is a source of energy and one type of fossil fuel which is being used worldwide for long time in many applications such as electricity production and industrialised area. Combustion of fossil fuels is and will probably continue to be an important part of the heat and power production systems of many countries. Thus, depending on type and origin of the coal, about 5-15% of the total remains as ash formed from mineral matter. Many elements such as B, Cr, Cu, Ni, Mo, S, V, etc occur in the coal during its formation and condensed to the ash when is burnt. Leaching these hazardous elements from bottom and fly ash will cause environmental problems. Two different types of fly ashes (PEA1, PFA2) were leached with deionised water and nitric acid. The results showed that most of the elements of environmental concern in fly ash are present in small quantities and high leaching rates can be found in acidic conditions (lower pH).

Huda Shaaban Elgubbi & Amina A Zuorab

Pistacia lentiscus gum is considered as a medicinal value which is characterized by the presence of many active substances included: phenols, flavonoids, hydrolyzed and condensed tannins, saponins, glycosides and anthracenes, in addition to volatile oils, it is anti-microbial and anti-cancer cells. The results of the study confirmed that the efficiency of extracting the active substances is due to the type of solvent used in the extraction, as the results, ethyl acetate considered as the best solvents used to extract the active substances from gum compared to ethyl alcohol and chloroform. The study also showed the inhibitory activity of gum extracts against the tested bacteria and fungi. The cytotoxicity of the extract gum was studied in the meristematic cells of the roots of the onion plant, using concentrations of 0.1% and 0.05%. The studied cytological parameters included chromosomal abnormalities at indirect mitosis. It was found that the effect of the gum extract was clear on the dividing cells in the onion roots at the higher concentration 0.1%, the greater the cytotoxic effect. the concentration of 0.1% of the gum extract prevailed over the cells in the slurry conditions, while the concentration of 0.05% of the gum extract had the lowest effect, and the most frequent chromosomal abnormalities were viscosity. The results of the GTS study confirmed that the gum extract is genetically toxic at the concentrations used in this study.

Habib A. U. Habib, Manam W. B. Saaed, Ibrahim M. M. Bo-Trab, Zadm R. Zadm & Yacoub M. El-Barasi

This study was conducted during 2019-2020 in the rangeland areas south of El-Jabal El-Akhdar region; northeast Libya. The study area extends from the Aziat area in the east to the Wadi Adwan southwest of the Kharouba village and covers an area of about 15,600 km2. The earth surface descends southwardly with an altitude range from 740 in the north to 120 m above sea level. in the south. The study area was divided into 15 sectors oriented from the north to south; ten in open areas and five in the valleys. Four soil samples from each sector with a total of 60 samples (20 from valleys and 40 from open areas) were taken once at the end of autumn and others at the end of spring; the total = 120 samples. The study aimed to estimate the density (seed/m2) and viability (%) of the seeds, and to identify spatial (between regions) and temporal (between seasons) differences of the soil seed bank (dynamics). The floating in a chemical suspension method was used with three replications for each sample, then the average was computed. The study showed that the region has low density and viability of the soil seed bank, where the overall average of seed density was 882 seed/m2 and viability 24%; the valleys and western regions of the study area showed relatively better results than the rest of the open areas, especially the central and eastern sectors. The density and viability of the seeds also showed very significant differences, both between the open areas and valleys and between the seasons of the year. There were also very significant differences in seed density and viability among open area sectors as well as among valleys. This study indicates the low density and viability of the region's soil seed bank and its high dynamics. This could be attributed to the severity of vegetation degradation and the dominance of annual and short-lived species, which produce big numbers of seeds that vary depending on the seasons, location features, and changes in the characteristics of the local climate in each region.

Zenati Safa & Etayeb Khaled

This study was conducted during the period from February to July 2020 on three sites along Tripoli coast; Gargaresh, Siahiya and Janzour. This study aimed to inventory the biodiversity of birds that utilize these small islands, compare the diversity and numbers of birds among the sites, as well as to investigate the impact of disturbance on them. Moreover, highlight the importance of small islands on the beach between Janzour and Gargaresh along the coast of Tripoli. This study recorded a total of 40 bird species belong to 16 families. The highest number of birds was in Gargaresh islands, and the lowest was in the Janzour site, both in terms of species and individuals. By using Shannon's diversity index, Gargaresh site was the most diverse and the Janzour site was the lowest. This study also recorded some tags (rings) on the legs of birds, which indicate their migratory line and the curriculum vitae of each bird, these species are: lesser black-backed gull Larus fascus (Linnaeus 1758), Audouin's gull Larus audouinii (Payraudeau 1826) and Yellow-legged gull Larus michahellis (Naumann 1840). Furthermore, a total of 10 endangered species that mentioned in Annex II issued by the Regional Activity Center for Specially Protected Areas in the Mediterranean (UNEP, MAP, RAC/SPA) were recorded, and two species mentioned in the Red List issued by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN/ Red) list). Among the results of this study, three rare species were recorded at the Gargaresh site: Pallas's gull Larus ichthyaetus (Pallas 1773), Great black-back gull Larus marinus (Linnaeus 1758), and a first record of European herring gull Larus argentatus (Pontopiddan 1763) in Libya.

Isma. M. Abdorlhman, Amanh K. Alshebani, A. M. Alshofer & M. A. Mokhtar

In nature fungi widespread because of their ability to grow in different environmental areas, and they transport through the air too long distances away of its essential environment. This study had conducted to investigate the presence of fungi in the indoor air of the transportation (private cars, trucks and buses for children, employees, and students) in Wadi Al shatti and Sebha. The results showed contamination of all transportation included in the study with fungi. Four types of fungi had founded at the two regions. In Wadi Al shatti founded Penicillium sp., Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus Flavus and Aspergillus Parasiticus. In the city of Sebha funded two types are Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus niger. The results also showed the dominance of the genus Penicillium sp. in both regions, employees buses were more contaminate, followed by buses for children, then trucks and private cars in two regions. In general, it had founded the transportation at the Wadi Al shatti region was more contaminate with fungi than the city of Sebha, with a large and diverse fungal presence.

Hend M K, Maryam B F

In this research , The current study aimed to determine the effect of the aqueous and alcoholic extract of the henna plant in concentrations (2.5%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 40%) compared with the antifungals Clotrmnzole, Micanzole on the fungi that infect human feet, which collected 21 samples from students at the College of Technology Brack Department of Medical Laboratories, The species was identified by morphological characteristics, urea test and cultivation on Dermatophyt medium. Two fungal species were isolated, T.rubrum and T.metagrophyte, and T.rubrum was the dominant fungus. The results showed that the aqueous extract of the henna plant had a greater inhibition rate than the alcoholic extract on the fungal species studied in this study. It was noted that the 40% concentration was the most efficient inhibitor compared to the other concentrations. As for the antifungals, the inhibition rate of Micanzole was higher than Clotmensole by 37.5% 25% on straight . Also, when Micanzole was used with the extracts, it had a better inhibitory ability than Coltmenzole.

Aisha Moftah Toumi , Asma Ayad Makhibish, & Iessa ALMdhoni

Due to the increase in demographic growth and the location of the tourist city of sabratha, and the lock of rain rates in recent years, the demand for water has become increased, , which prompted curiosity to study changes in the specifications of the water specification of the stations feeding the city, in order to measure the physical in (pH, total dissolved salts, and electrical conductivity) and chemical indicators, such as chloride, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and bicarbonate ions, also indicators of a common nature with bacteriology (NH4+, NO3-, NO2-). The feeding stations for the city were counted, and there were six operating stations as well as the ones that were not working six samples were drawn and the statistical analysis program (Excel) was used. This paper assessed the extent of the water deterioration of the drinking groundwater feeding the city over the period from 2001 to 2021 and comparing it with the Libyan standard specifications, the results showed a noticeable discrepancy over these years.

Amira F. Abusharaya Yakub Burasiay Rebeh & O. M. Rahil

The study area is located about 30km. south the city of Benghazi and it is considered among an important agricultural zone. It has a strategic geographical location, being located in middle area between the largest reservoir of water in Libya (Maseklo), of the man-made river. And the wadi El-Qattara dam. Out of 120 farm 12 farms were selected to test the possibility of applying the principle of sustainable development in agriculture. Improving production and protecting the agricultural environment, especially land and water deterioration. The study concluded that the farmers should improve their professional skills, through continuous training in terms of improving the abilities to understand how to manage the agricultural process in a sustainable way. As well as paying attention to the problem of salinity due faulty irrigation, and controlling plowing operations. Cultivation of perennial crops like Olea europaea, and fruit trees and seasonal crops like Triticum sp and Hordeum sp due to their importance to food security, and planting species used as bees pasture in order to increase honey production, and applying modern irrigation systems. Leaving empty spaces between farms in order to preserve natural vegetation and biodiversity.

Aiad A. A. Alzway Younis A. M. Alhendawi ,& Manam W.B. Saaed

El-Kufra oasis lies in southeastern Libya, deep in the Sahara Desert, covering an area of about 3,630 km2. Rainfall is deficient, and agriculture depends mainly on irrigation from groundwater (The Nubian aquifer). Most El-Kufra farms are private, using flood water irrigation from shallow wells (18‒55 m). The Kufra Agricultural Project (state farms) comprises 100 circles, using deep wells (220‒352 m). This study aimed to assess the quality of irrigation water from the shallow and deep aquifer in El-Kufra oasis and its effect on the soil properties and crop production (alfalfa and potato). According to the FAO classification system, 97% of the examined deep wells are suitable for irrigation, only 3% were in the slight to moderate restriction category (E.C.> 0.7 dS/m). However, 78% of the shallow wells were in the severe category degree (E.C.> 3 dS/m), and 22% were in the slight to the moderate category of restriction. The water quality is reflected in the soil properties and crop production. The soils of the state farms were in the normal range for pH, E.C., and ESP% values; meanwhile, 10% of the private farms were classified as saline-non alkali soil, and 70% as saline-alkali soils. The salt accumulation in the soil's root zone affects crop production, most obviously in the private farms as they depend on the shallow aquifer with poor water quality and use inappropriate irrigation and cultivation techniques. This study highlighted the urgent need to transfer the agricultural sector in El-Kufra district to depend on the deep aquifer and adjust the agricultural applications and cultivated crops to be more suitable for the desert environment and salty soils.

A. Elmelad N. Shanta & A. Swisi

The aim of this work is to compile and update a catalogue of the instrumentally recorded earthquakes in Libya, with uniform and homogeneous source parameters as required from the analysis of seismograms recorded by Libyan seismological network (LNSN) as well as earthquake recordings gathered from the international seismological center (ISC). This in turn requires a detailed analysis and comparison of the properties of different available sources, including the distribution of events with time and magnitude completeness and compilation of different magnitudes reported by ISC and LNSN. The observational data cover the time interval 1900 to 2018 and an area between 18° - 34° N and 8° - 26° E. Using the best linear relationship identified between the magnitudes and the seismic moment, and by analysis of relative seismograms recorded by LNSN we convert whenever possible the different magnitude types into moment magnitudes Mw. Analysis of the catalogue completeness based on the different types of magnitudes thus estimated, the interval of 1900 to 1972 appears to be complete for magnitudes ≥ 4.0 while the interval of 1973 to 2018 can be considered complete for magnitudes ≥ 3.0. An update of the Libyan seismicity map with the compiled catalogue data is thus can be constructed.

Salem Irhema S. Irhema

The pollution of the Earth-system by microplastics (MPs) has attracted the scientific community's attention during the last decade due to the ability of MPs to alter the soil and agronomic lands properties and affect the soil flora and fauna, and thus via food chain may harm human health. The current review attempted to survey several previous studies to demonstrate the possible sources of MPs in soil characterised as primary and secondary sources depending on the way MPs are generated. Most of MPs released from these sources ended into the soil and can emigrate within soil profile, which negatively affects several physiochemical soil properties, soil biota, and plants that may alter biodiversity and agronomic land productivity. The bioremediation of MPs-polluted terrestrial environment using some microorganisms is an optimum economic and eco-friendly technology. This review is a first step to help researchers identify the main sources and effects of MPs pollution in Libyan farmlands to stand up on the current levels of these substances in soil and suggest future strategies to avoid possible harm impacts of MPs pollution over our country.